Er war der Arzt, dem die Patienten vertrauten: Harold Shipman, britischer Landarzt mit vollem Wartezimmer und ungemein beliebt, tötete. Shipman ist der Name folgender Personen: Harold Shipman (–), britischer Mediziner und Serienmörder; Jamar Shipman (* ), US-amerikanischer. Harold Frederick Shipman war ein britischer Hausarzt und –facher Serienmörder.
Harold Shipman Die schrecklichsten Verbrechen der Welt
Harold Frederick Shipman war ein britischer Hausarzt und –facher Serienmörder. Harold Frederick Shipman (* Januar in Nottingham; † Januar in Wakefield) war ein britischer Hausarzt und –facher Serienmörder. Shipman ist der Name folgender Personen: Harold Shipman (–), britischer Mediziner und Serienmörder; Jamar Shipman (* ), US-amerikanischer. Harold Shipman: Dr. Death. Schreiben Sie die erste Bewertung26 Min muss sich ein Familien-Doktor für den Mord an fünfzehn seiner älteren. Er war der Arzt, dem die Patienten vertrauten: Harold Shipman, britischer Landarzt mit vollem Wartezimmer und ungemein beliebt, tötete. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Harold Shipman sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum. Harold Frederick Shipman war ein Arzt aus Manchester und wurde bekannt, weil er im Zeitraum von 19Morde an mindestens Patienten verübte.
Der Hausarzt Harold Shipman, der sich als Serienmörder den Beinamen „Doktor Tod“ verdiente, hat nach einem neuen Bericht bis zu fünfzehn. Der wegen Mordes an mindestens 15 Patientinnen verurteilte britische Hausarzt Harold Shipman hat sich einen Tag vor seinem Geburtstag. Harold Frederick Shipman war ein Arzt aus Manchester und wurde bekannt, weil er im Zeitraum von 19Morde an mindestens Patienten verübte. The Guardian reported that Shipman was "obnoxious and arrogant to the prison staff. Harold Shipman to the forgery of papers and prescriptions he had to undertake to feed this addiction, he had to leave this practice and briefly attended a rehab clinic, before joining another practice in Hyde, Manchester, where he rebuilt his career. Committed suicide by hanging himself in his cell at Wakefield Prison in West Yorkshire on January 13, InShipman set up his own practice in Hyde, Greater Manchester and registered approximately 3, patients. Most of his victims were elderly women in good health. Burgess told Woodruff to report it, and went to the police, Lass Es, Larry began an investigation. Whatever the exact number, the sheer scale of his murderous Lloyd Bochner meant that Shipman was catapulted from British patient killer to the most prolific known serial killer in the world. He kept Gaara a little bit persistent about it and I kept telling him no, no, I don't want it.
Harold Shipman Navigation menu VideoTrue Crime Story: Dr Death - Britain's Biggest Serial Killer (Crime Documentary) - Real Stories
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Retrieved 18 September The Shipman Inquiry. Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 30 November John Bodkin Adams".
The Guardian. The Health Report. Retrieved 1 April The Independent. Retrieved 2 September The Daily Telegraph. Manchester Evening News.
Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 27 September Harold Frederick Shipman.
Little Brown , pp. Risk-adjusted sequential probability ratio tests: application to Bristol, Shipman and adult cardiac surgery.
Int J Qual Health Care , vol. Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 16 August Alexander Harris.
Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 23 December Scottish Government. October Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 6 March Harold Shipman: Doctor Death Television drama.
ITV Press Centre. Retrieved 17 April The Telegraph. Some said that he had a God complex, enjoying the decision power he had over the life or death of his victims.
But the truth is that his motives were never discovered. Harold Shipman died by hanging in his prison cell at Wakefield, on January 13, , having used bed sheets tied to the window bars of his cell.
Rick is the one that came up with the idea of a single place where one could find information about serial killers and anything related to this subject.
He started the project on his own, then accepting contributors because let's face it, we all like reading about this subject.
Harold Shipman and Wife. Harold Shipman — Student. Harold Shipman Victims. Mr Justice Forbes. Richard Henriquez — Shipman Prosecutor.
Harold Shipman Diamorphine. Harold Shipman. Related Posts. Next Serial Killers Motives. About The Author.
Rick Jr. Paulson Rick is the one that came up with the idea of a single place where one could find information about serial killers and anything related to this subject.
Get the latest updates Name. Key Five famous serial murderers as kids Rick Jr. Closer inspection of the facts reveals this cannot have been the motivation, certainly not by the end, since he also murdered elderly but still perfectly healthy patients with overdoses.
Many were not terminally ill or even in obvious ill health. There was something more perverted and malevolent going on here. Shipman killed his patients by giving them lethal overdoses of diamorphine or heroin and then forging death certificates.
However one chooses to interpret this, it was most definitely a seminal turning point in his life. Researchers have noticed that he only displayed an interest in medicine once his mother had passed, having never expressed an interest in it before.
He trained in medical school at Leeds University, graduating in the mid s, before moving on to health practices in Pontefract and Todmorden in Yorkshire.
Here we see the first signs of character problems as he became addicted to the painkiller Pethidine, likely as a way of relieving stress for the enormous workload of patients he put onto himself.
Due to the forgery of papers and prescriptions he had to undertake to feed this addiction, he had to leave this practice and briefly attended a rehab clinic, before joining another practice in Hyde, Manchester, where he rebuilt his career.
All his colleagues decribe him as a very hard working, dedicated doctor, again emphasizing the facade or mask of sanity so many psychopaths, including serial killers are able to present to the world.
They are able to come across as normal, respectable people, even pillars of the community who no one would suspect.
There are occasional documented signs of an abrasive, controlling and overbearing character around his work, but nothing off the charts or out of line with any other number of people in life, given that no one is perfect of course.
There is nothing there that hints at a serial killer, emphasizing how good they are at hiding. However it is now known that during his career as a General Practitioner, he most likely killed several hundred people over the span of several decades by overdoses of morphine, most of them elderly, vulnerable women, forging their death certificates and erasing data from medical records to conceal his actions.
He often did this by visiting them at their homes under the pretense of taking blood samples or just a general care visit, injecting them with fatal doses of morphine.
In the predatory way of psychopathic killers, he targeted elderly people who lived alone and since he was so well liked and respected, even by the patients, he was never suspected.
A secret investigation was even carried out by police following concerns being reported by local doctors and undertakers, but nothing came of them and Shipman was able to evade detection and kill several more people before be was finally apprehended in September One common thread that does run through some of the feedback about Shipman who worked with him is that he did sometimes give off an air of arrogance and superiority.
However, whilst Shipman did appear to take steps to cover his tracks, he was not nearly clever enough in concealing his actions to the point where he could never be caught.
In fact, far from this, he actually made some silly mistakes which would actually seal his fate, demonstrating that he was not nearly as clever as he would have liked to think.
Firstly, the sheer number of deaths that began to be associated to people under his care meant that suspicions would continue to be aroused regarding him, no matter his respectable image.
Sooner or later these were going to lead to him being caught and they did. Secondly, the use of diamorphine heroin in itself was a silly thing to do, since this stays in victims bodies and is therefore traceable for even years after the murders.
Again it seems to be a powerfully ingrained fetish and something he was determined to do no matter what. However, his most stupid act and the one that finally got him caught was an attempt to forge the will of his last victim to leave her entire estate of several hundred thousand pounds to Shipman himself.
The attempted forgering was very poorly written and was never going to work, confirmed as an amateurish attempt by everyone who inspected it.
Psychopaths are normally very clever and calculating individuals, but this stands out as a very stupid thing to do on several fronts.
Secondly, it would make no sense for a victim to write their own children, with whom there was no acrimony, out of their will altogether and leave the entire sum to their doctor alone.Denn das Opioid wird sehr schnell verstoffwechselt, im Blut ist daher ein Nachweis nicht zu erwarten. Ein Beamter klassifizierte nach einer eingehenden Untersuchung 25 weitere Tode seiner Patientinnen als "gesetzeswidrige Tötung". Freiheit im Kopf Jobs Basket Case Film der F. Der Terroranschlag Gls Neunkirchen Österreich war der schwerste seit rund 40 Jahren. Beispielsweise übernahm er nach dem nicht von ihm verschuldeten Tod eines Patienten 20 bis 30 Ampullen, jede mit mg Heroin. NET Honigfrauen Schauspieler
In , he was interviewed on the Granada television documentary World in Action on how the mentally ill should be treated in the community.
In March , Dr. In particular, she was concerned about the large number of cremation forms for elderly women that he had needed countersigned.
She suspected Shipman was, either through negligence or intent, killing his patients. The matter was brought to the attention of the police, who were unable to find sufficient evidence to bring charges; The Shipman Inquiry later blamed the police for assigning inexperienced officers to the case.
Between 17 April , when the police abandoned the investigation, and Shipman's eventual arrest, he killed three more people.
Shipman was the last person to see her alive, and later signed her death certificate, recording "old age" as cause of death.
Grundy's daughter, lawyer Angela Woodruff, became concerned when solicitor Brian Burgess informed her that a will had been made, apparently by her mother although there were doubts about its authenticity.
Burgess told Woodruff to report it, and went to the police, who began an investigation. Grundy's body was exhumed, and when examined found to contain traces of diamorphine, often used for pain control in terminal cancer patients.
The police then investigated other deaths Shipman had certified, and created a list of 15 specimen cases to investigate.
They discovered a pattern of his administering lethal overdoses of diamorphine, signing patients' death certificates, and then forging medical records indicating they had been in poor health.
One is that he wanted to be caught because his life was out of control; the other reason, that he planned to retire at fifty-five and leave the country.
Shipman also received four years for forging the will. Two years later, Home Secretary David Blunkett confirmed the judge's recommendation that Shipman never be released, just months before British government ministers lost their power to set minimum terms for prisoners.
On 11 February , ten days after his conviction, the General Medical Council formally struck Shipman off its register. Shipman consistently denied his guilt, disputing the scientific evidence against him.
He never made any statements about his actions. His defence tried, but failed, to have the count of murder of Mrs Grundy, where a clear motive was alleged, tried separately from the others, where no obvious motive was apparent.
His wife Primrose apparently was in denial about his crimes as well. Although many other cases could have been brought to court, the authorities concluded it would be hard to have a fair trial, in view of the enormous publicity surrounding the original trial.
Also, given the sentences from the first trial, a further trial was unnecessary. The Shipman Inquiry concluded Shipman was probably responsible for about deaths.
The Shipman Inquiry also suggested that he liked to use drugs recreationally. Despite the prosecutions of Dr John Bodkin Adams in , Dr Leonard Arthur in , and Dr Thomas Lodwig in amongst others , Shipman is the only doctor in British legal history to be found guilty of killing patients.
According to historian Pamela Cullen, Adams had also been a serial killer—potentially killing up to of his patients between and —and it is estimated he may have killed over , but as he "was found not guilty, there was no impetus to examine the flaws in the system until the Shipman case.
Had these issues been addressed earlier, it might have been more difficult for Shipman to commit his crimes. Kinnell, writing in the British Medical Journal , also speculates that Adams "possibly provided the role model for Shipman".
A Prison Service statement indicated that Shipman had hanged himself from the window bars of his cell using bed sheets.
Some British tabloids expressed joy at his suicide and encouraged other serial killers to follow his example; The Sun ran a celebratory front page headline, "Ship Ship hooray!
Some of the victims' families said they felt cheated, as his suicide meant they would never have the satisfaction of Shipman's confession, and answers as to why he committed his crimes.
The Home Secretary David Blunkett noted that celebration was tempting, saying: "You wake up and you receive a call telling you Shipman has topped himself and you think, is it too early to open a bottle?
And then you discover that everybody's very upset that he's done it. Despite The Sun' s celebration of Shipman's suicide, his death divided national newspapers, with the Daily Mirror branding him a "cold coward" and condemning the Prison Service for allowing his suicide to happen.
The Independent , on the other hand, called for the inquiry into Shipman's suicide to look more widely at the state of Britain's prisons as well as the welfare of inmates.
In The Guardian , an article by Sir David Ramsbotham former Chief Inspector of Prisons suggested that whole life sentencing be replaced by indefinite sentencing as these would at least give prisoners the hope of eventual release and reduce the risk of their committing suicide as well as making their management easier for prison officials.
Shipman's motive for suicide was never established, although he had reportedly told his probation officer that he was considering suicide so that his widow could receive a National Health Service NHS pension and lump sum, even though he had been stripped of his own pension.
His wife received a full NHS pension, which she would not have been entitled to if he had died after the age of FBI profiler John Douglas asserted that serial killers are usually obsessed with manipulation and control, and killing themselves in police custody, or committing "suicide by cop", can be a final act of control.
Shipman had been emotional and close to tears when his refusal to take part in courses which would have encouraged him to confess his guilt led to privileges including the opportunity to telephone his wife being removed.
Privileges had been returned the week before the suicide. Additionally, Primrose, who had consistently believed that Shipman was innocent, might have begun to suspect his guilt.
According to Tony Fleming, Shipman's ex-cellmate, Primrose recently wrote her husband a letter, exhorting him to "tell me everything, no matter what".
In January , Chris Gregg, a senior West Yorkshire detective was selected to lead an investigation into 22 of the West Yorkshire deaths.
Following this, a report into Shipman's activities submitted in July concluded that he had killed at least of his patients between and , during which time he practiced in Todmorden, West Yorkshire — and Hyde, Greater Manchester — Dame Janet Smith, the judge who submitted the report, admitted that many more suspicious deaths could not be definitively ascribed to him.
Most of his victims were elderly women in good health. Smith concluded the probable number of Shipman's victims between and was In total, people died while under his care, but it is uncertain how many of those were Shipman's victims, as he was often the only doctor to certify a death.
The General Medical Council charged six doctors who signed cremation forms for Shipman's victims with misconduct, claiming they should have noticed the pattern between Shipman's home visits and his patients' deaths.
All these doctors were found not guilty. Shipman's widow, Primrose Shipman, was called to give evidence about two of the deaths during the inquiry.
She maintained her husband's innocence both before and after the prosecution. In October , a similar hearing was held against two doctors who worked at Tameside General Hospital in , who failed to detect that Shipman had deliberately administered a "grossly excessive" dose of morphine.
A inquiry into Shipman's suicide found that it "could not have been predicted or prevented," but that procedures should nonetheless be re-examined.
In , it came to light that Shipman might have stolen jewellery from his victims. Unidentified items were handed to the Assets Recovery Agency in May.
In August the investigation ended: 66 pieces were returned to Primrose Shipman and 33 pieces, which she confirmed were not hers, were auctioned.
The proceeds of the auction went to Tameside Victim Support. The only piece actually returned to a murdered patient's family was a platinum-diamond ring, for which the family were able to provide a photograph as proof of ownership.
Extracts from the strip were subsequently merchandised as a coffee mug. Shipman , a television dramatisation of the case, was made in and starred James Bolam in the title role.
The case was also referenced in an episode of the television series Diagnosis: Unknown called "Deadly Medicine" Season 2, Episode 17, Shipman's activities also inspired D.
In it, the police investigate a physician who they discover has killed of his patients. The Fall's song is, "What About Us? King's song became controversial when, six months after its release, it was reported to be in Shipman's defence, urging listeners not to "fall for a media demon".
As of early , families of the victims of Shipman are still seeking compensation for the loss of their loved ones.
In September , it was announced that letters written by Shipman during his prison sentence were to be sold at auction.
Following complaints from victims' relatives and the media, the letters were removed from sale. Harold Shipman born: birth place: Nottingham died: She instilled in him an early sense of superiority that tainted most of his later relationships, leaving him an isolated adolescent with few friends.
When his mother was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer, he willingly oversaw her care as she declined, fascinated by the positive effect that the administration of morphine had on her suffering, until she succumbed to the disease on 21st June Devastated by her death, he was determined to go to medical school, and he was admitted to Leeds University medical school for training two years later, having failed his entrance exams first time, before serving his hospital internship.
Still a loner, he met his wife-to-be Primrose at the age of 19, and they were married when she was 17, and five months pregnant with their first child.
By he was a father of two and had joined a medical practice in Todmorden, Yorkshire, where he initially thrived as a family practitioner, before allegedly becoming addicted to the painkiller, Pethidine.
He forged prescriptions for large amounts of the drug, and he was forced to leave the practice when caught by his medical colleagues in , at which time he entered a drug rehab programme.
In the subsequent inquiry he received a small fine and a conviction for forgery. A couple of years later he was accepted onto the staff at Donneybrook Medical Centre in Hyde, where he ingratiated himself as a hardworking doctor, who enjoyed the trust of patients and colleagues alike, although he had a reputation for arrogance amongst junior staff.
He remained on staff there for almost two decades, and his behaviour incurred only minor interest from other healthcare professionals.
The local undertaker noticed that Dr. He was concerned enough to approach Shipman about this directly, who reassured him that there was nothing to be concerned about.
Later, another medical colleague, Dr. A covert investigation followed, but Shipman was cleared, as it appeared that his records were in order.
Later, a more thorough investigation revealed that Shipman altered the medical records of his patients to corroborate their causes of death.
Hiding behind his status as a caring, family doctor, it is almost impossible to establish exactly when Shipman began killing his patients, or indeed exactly how many died at his hand, and his denial of all charges did nothing to assist the authorities.
Kathleen Grundy, an active, wealthy year-old widow, was found dead in her home on 24th June , following an earlier visit by Shipman. Woodruff was convinced the document was a forgery, and that Shipman had murdered her mother, forging the will to benefit from her death.
She alerted the local police, where Detective Superintendent Bernard Postles quickly came to the same conclusion on examination of the evidence.
It was immediately apparent to the police, from the medical records seized, that the case would extend further than the single death in question, and priority was given to those deaths it would be most productive to investigate, namely victims who had not been cremated, and who had died following a home visit by Shipman, which were given priority.
Shipman had urged families to cremate their relatives in a large number of cases, stressing that no further investigation of their deaths was necessary, even in instances where these relatives had died of causes previously unknown to the families.
In situations where they did raise questions, Shipman would provide computerised medical notes that corroborated his cause of death pronouncements.
Police later established that Shipman would, in most cases, alter these medical notes directly after killing the patient, to ensure that his account matched the historical records.
What Shipman had failed to grasp was that each alteration of the records would be time stamped by the computer, enabling police to ascertain exactly which records had been altered.
Following extensive investigations, which included numerous exhumations and autopsies, the police charged Shipman with 15 individual counts of murder on 7th September , as well as one count of forgery.
The Trial. Attempts by his defence council to have Shipman tried in three separate phases, i. The prosecution asserted that Shipman had killed the fifteen patients because he enjoyed exercising control over life and death, and dismissed any claims that he had been acting compassionately, as none of his victims were suffering a terminal illness.
Next up, the government pathologist led the court through the gruesome post mortem findings, where morphine toxicity was the cause of death in most instances.
Thereafter, fingerprint analysis of the forged will showed that Kathleen Grundy had never handled the will, and her signature was dismissed by a handwriting expert as a crude forgery.
A police computer analyst then testified how Shipman had altered his computer records to create symptoms that his dead patients never had, in most cases within hours of their deaths.
A lack of compassion, disregard for the wishes of attending relatives, and reluctance to attempt to revive patients were bad enough, but another fraud also came to light: he would pretend to call the emergency services in the presence of relatives, then cancel the call out when the patient was discovered to be dead.
Telephone records showed that no actual calls were made. Despite their attempts, his arrogance and constantly changing stories, when caught out in obvious lies, did nothing to endear him to the jury.
Following a meticulous summation by the judge, and a caution to the jury that no one had actually witnessed Shipman kill any of his patients, the jury were sufficiently convinced by the testimony and evidence presented, and unanimously found Shipman guilty on all charges: 15 counts of murder and one of forgery, on the afternoon of 31st January Shipman was incarcerated at Durham Prison.
The Aftermath. The fact that a doctor had killed 15 patients sent a shudder through the medical community, but this was to prove insignificant in light of further investigations that delved more deeply into his patient case list history.
A clinical audit conducted by Professor Richard Baker, of the University of Leicester, examined the number and pattern of deaths in Harold Shipman's practice and compared them with those of other practitioners.
It found that rates of death amongst his elderly patients were significantly higher, clustered at certain times of day and that Shipman was in attendance in a disproportionately high number of cases.
The audit goes on to estimate that he may have been responsible for the deaths of at least patients over a year period. He may in fact have taken his first victim within months of obtaining his licence to practice medicine, year-old Margaret Thompson, who died in March whilst recovering from a stroke, but deaths prior to were never officially proven.
Whatever the exact number, the sheer scale of his murderous activities meant that Shipman was catapulted from British patient killer to the most prolific known serial killer in the world.
He remained at Durham Prison throughout these investigations, maintaining his innocence, and was staunchly defended by his wife Primrose and family.
He was moved to Wakefield Prison in June , which made visits from his family easier. On 13th January , Shipman was discovered at 6 a. There remains some mystery about the whereabouts of his remains, with some claiming that his body is still in a Sheffield Morgue, while others believe that his family have custody of his body, believing that he may have been murdered in his cell, and wishing to delay his interment pending further tests.
His patients - mainly elderly women - were living alone and vulnerable. They adored their doctor, Harold "Fred" Shipman.
Even when their contemporaries began dying in unusually high numbers, patients remained loyal to the murderous M.
For as long as he spared them, his victims loved their doctor — to death. In the dead of a black August night, relentless rains and driving winds formed the perfect backdrop for an exhumation.
But this was no psychological thriller — the Manchester police were observing a real-life drama. Experts were raising the mud-streaked coffin of wealthy Kathleen Grundy.
Interred just 5 weeks earlier in the Hyde cemetery, the year-old ex-mayoress held, in death, the key to solving nearly murders. This would give killer Dr.
Harold Shipman the dubious distinction of being the greatest serial murderer the world has ever known. It puts him well ahead of modern history's most prolific serial killer to date — Pedro "monster of the Andes" Lopez.
Convicted of 57 murders in , Lopez allegedly killed young girls in Colombia. In spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, he continues to maintain his innocence.
How could this prolific serial killer go undetected for so long? And what made him the monster he became? The answers lie in a story that began in earnest over fifty years ago — in a government-owned red brick terrace house in the north of England.
Born into a working class family on June 14, , Harold Frederick Shipman, called Fred or Freddy, knew a childhood far from normal.
He maintained a distance between himself and his contemporaries — mainly due to the influence of his mother, Vera.
This distance was to manifest itself in later years. One neighbor notes, "Vera was friendly enough, but she really did see her family as superior to the rest of us.
Not only that, you could tell Harold Freddy was her favorite — the one she saw as the most promising of her three children. Vera decided who Harold could play with, and when.
She wanted to distinguish him from the other boys — he was the one who always wore a tie when the others were allowed more casual dress.
His sister Pauline was seven years older, his brother Clive, four years his junior. But in his mother's eyes, Harold was the one she held the most hope for.
As a student, Shipman was comparatively bright in his early school years, but rather mediocre when he reached upper school level.
Nonetheless, he was a plodder determined to succeed, even when it meant re-sitting his entrance examinations for medical school. Strangely, he had every opportunity to be part of the group — he was an accomplished athlete on the football field and the running track.
In spite of this, his belief in his superiority appears to have precluded forming meaningful friendships with his contemporaries.
And there was something else that isolated him from the group. His beloved mother had terminal lung cancer. As she wasted away, Harold willingly played a major supportive role.
Much has been made of the way young Harold Shipman dealt with his mother's final months — justifiably so. Because his behavior then closely paralleled that of Shipman the serial killer.
Every day after classes, he would hurry home, make Vera a cup of tea and chat with her — probably about his day at school.
She counted the minutes as she waited, and found great solace in his company. For his part, this is likely where Shipman learned the endearing bedside manner he would adopt later in his practice as a family physician.
Toward the end, Vera experienced severe pain. But, because pumps to self-administer painkillers did not exist at that time, Vera's sole relief from the agony of cancer came with the family physician.
No doubt young Harold watched in fascination as his mother's distress miraculously subsided whenever the family doctor injected her with morphine.
As the disease progressed, the already trim Ms. Shipman grew thinner and frailer until, on June 21st , the cancer claimed her life.
Vera's death left her son with a tremendous sense of loss. After all, his mother was the one who made him feel special, above the rest. Significantly, her passing left him with an indelible image — the patient with a cup of tea nearby, finding sweet relief in morphine.
Etched upon the year-old's mind, it was a scene he would re-create hundreds of times in the future. And when it happened, he would be a doctor — one with no regard for human life or feeling.
Two years after his mother died, Harold Shipman was finally admitted to Leeds University medical school. Getting in had been a struggle.
In spite of his self-proclaimed superiority, he'd had to re-write the exams he'd flunked first time around. Nonetheless, his grades were adequate enough for him to collect a degree and serve his mandatory hospital internship.
It is surprising to learn that so many of his teachers and fellow students can barely remember Shipman. Some who do remember claim that he looked down on them and seemed bemused by the way most young men behaved.
If someone told a joke he would smile patiently, but Fred never wanted to join in. It seems funny, because I later heard he'd been a good athlete, so you'd have thought he'd be more of a team player.
Most of his contemporaries — especially from his earlier years — simply remember him as a loner. They also remember the one place where his personality changed — the football field.
Here, his aggression was unleashed, his dedication to win intense. Even so, he was more sociable in medical school than his mother had allowed him to be while living at home.
A former teacher said, "I don't think he ever had a girlfriend; in fact he took his older sister to school dances. They made a strange couple. But then, he was a bit strange — a pretentious lad.
But Shipman finally found companionship in a girl and married before most of his contemporaries did.
At nineteen, he met Primrose — 3 years his junior. Her background was similar to Fred's. Her mother restricted her friendships, and controlled her activities.
No poster girl, Primrose was delighted to have finally found a boyfriend. Shipman married her when she was 17 — and 5 months pregnant.
By he was a father of two and had joined a medical practice in the Yorkshire town of Todmorden. In this North England setting, Fred seemed to undergo a metamorphosis; he became an outgoing, respected member of the community — in the eyes of his fellow medics and patients.
But the staff in the medical offices where he worked saw a different side of the young practitioner. He was often unnecessarily rude and made some of them feel "stupid" — a word he frequently used to describe anyone he didn't like.
He was confrontational and combative with many people, to the point where he belittled and embarrassed them.
He also had a way of getting things done his way — even with the more experienced doctors in the practice. Hard working, and enthusiastic, Shipman fitted well into the social matrix.
His senior partners saw him as a Godsend. One, Dr. Michael Grieve, appreciated Fred's contribution in providing up-to-date information, as he was so recently out of medical school.
But his career in Todmorden came to a sudden halt when he began having blackouts. His partners were devastated when he gave them the reason.
He suffered, he said, with epilepsy. He used this inaccurate diagnosis as a cover-up. The truth soon surfaced, when practice receptionist Marjorie Walker stumbled upon some disturbing entries in a druggist's controlled narcotics ledger.
The records showed how Shipman had been prescribing large and frequent amounts of pethidine in the names of several patients. Moreover, he'd written numerous prescriptions for the drug on behalf of the practice.
Although this was not unusual drugs are kept on hand for emergencies and immediate treatments , the prescribed amounts were excessive.
Pethidine — a morphine-like analgesic — was initially thought to have no addictive properties. Now, some sixty years after scientists first synthesized it, pethidine's non-addictive reputation is still hotly debated.
Following the discovery of Shipman's over-prescribing, a covert investigation by the practice — including Dr. John Dacre — followed.
To his alarm, he discovered many patients on the prescription list had neither required nor received the drug. Dacre challenged Fred in a staff meeting, as one of his partners, Dr.
Michael Grieve recalls:. Shipman's way of dealing with the problem was to provide an insight into his true personality.
Realizing his career was on the line, he first begged for a second chance. When this was denied, he became enraged and stormed out, hurled a medical bag to the ground and threatened to resign.
The partners were dumbfounded by this violent — and seemingly uncharacteristic — behavior. Shortly afterwards, his wife Primrose stormed into the room where his peers were discussing the best way to dismiss him.
Rudely, she informed the people at the meeting that her husband would never resign, proclaiming, "You'll have to force him out!
She was right. Ultimately he was forced out of the practice and into a drug re-hab center in Two years later, his many convictions for drug offences, prescription fraud and forgery cost him a surprisingly low fine — just over pounds sterling.
Shipman's conviction for forgery is worth noting. First, because his skill in this area was nothing less than pathetic; second, he failed to learn that his ineptitude in this area was readily exposed.
Yet in spite of this early warning, some 22 years later he actually believed he could get away with faking signatures on a patently counterfeit will — that of his last victim, Katherine Grundy.
This lack of judgment — some say arrogance — set in motion the mechanism for his downfall. As for the pethidine charges, the question remains: Did he really self-inject the drugs as he claimed or had he already begun using them to kill unsuspecting patients?
This is currently under review. Today, it is unlikely Harold Shipman would be allowed to handle drugs unsupervised, given his previous track record.
Nonetheless, within two years, he was back in business as a general practitioner. How readily he was accepted demonstrates his absolute self-confidence — and his ability to convince his peers of his sincerity.
Jeffery Moysey of the Center explained "His approach was that I have had this problem, this conviction for abuse of pethidine.
I have undergone treatment. I am now clean. All I can ask you to do is to trust me on that issue and to watch me. Again, he played the role of a dedicated, hardworking and community-minded doctor.
He gained his patients' absolute trust and earned his colleagues' respect. Some of those who worked under him have told of his sarcastic and abusive nature, but he was skilled at masking his patronizing attitude in front of those he chose to impress.
As for any signs of addiction, there were no blackouts as before, and no indication of drug abuse. Because of the nature of the Shipman case, it may never be possible to document every murder he committed.
A clinical audit commissioned by the Department of Health estimates his responsibility for the deaths of at least patients over a year period.
This audit, by Professor Richard Baker of the University of Leicester, examined the number and pattern of deaths in Harold Shipman's practice.
It then compared them with those of other practitioners. Significant differences appeared, notably that the rates of death in elderly patients were disproportionately higher.
Other variations appeared; deaths were often clustered at certain times of the day, patients' records and previous symptoms mismatched, and Shipman was usually in attendance.
Professor Liam Donaldson, Chief Medical Officer for the Department of Health, wrote that these factors "must now be investigated by the proper legal authorities.
Detective Chief Superintendent Bernard Postles, who headed the original investigations, said of the report 'many of its conclusions accord with our own findings to date.
Even so, the final numbers are anyone's guess — Coroner John Pollard once speculated "we might be looking at But whatever the final count, there is no immediate plan to try the killer on future findings — nor would it serve much purpose because he's already serving 15 concurrent life sentences.
Instead, other cases are being investigated as they come to light, with coroners' verdicts of unlawful killing continuing to mount.
As they do, the question most asked is this: Why wasn't he stopped sooner? In this macabre and unfinished story, Shipman's former patients are grateful indeed he was finally stopped.
The feeling "I could have been next" will always haunt them. And there is little doubt that some owe their lives to a determined and intelligent woman named Angela Woodruff.
Her dogged determination to solve a mystery helped ensure that, on Monday, January 31, , the jury at Preston Crown Court found Shipman guilty of murdering 15 of his patients and forging the will of Angela's beloved mother, Katherine Grundy.
But Ms. Woodruff was not the first to realize something was dangerously wrong where Dr. Shipman was involved. Local undertaker Alan Massey began noticing a strange pattern: not only did Shipman's patients seem to be dying at an unusually high rate; their dead bodies had a similarity when he called to collect them.
Shipman's always seem to be the same, or very similar. There was never anything in the house that I saw that indicated the person had been ill.
It just seems the person, where they were, had died. There was something that didn't quite fit. Worried enough to voice his unease, Massey decided to confront Shipman, and paid the doctor a visit.
Massey recalls, "I asked him if there was any cause for concern and he just said 'no there isn't". He showed me his certificate book that he issues death certificates in, the cause of death in, and his remarks were 'nothing to worry about, you've nothing to worry about and anybody who wants to inspect his book can do.
Reassured by Shipman's ease at being questioned, the undertaker took no further action. But his daughter, Debbie Brambroffe — also a funeral director — was not so readily appeased.
She found an ally in Dr. Susan Booth. From a neighboring practice, Dr. Booth had gone to the funeral directors to examine a body.
British law requires a doctor from an unrelated practice to countersign cremation forms issued by the original doctor.
They are paid a fee for this service which some medics cynically call "cash for ash. Booth she had misgivings. Booth explained, "She was concerned about the number of deaths of Dr.
Shipman's patients that they'd attended recently. She was also puzzled by the way in which the patients were found. They were mostly female, living on their own, found dead sitting in a chair fully dressed, not in their nightclothes lying ill in bed.
Booth spoke to her colleagues. One of them, Dr. Linda Reynolds contacted coroner John Pollard. He in turn alerted the police.
In a virtually covert operation, Shipman's records were examined and given a clean bill of health because the causes of death and treatments matched perfectly.
What the police did not discover was that Shipman had re-written patient records after he killed. The quality of that investigation has been questioned because the police failed to check for a previous criminal record.
Nor did they make inquiries with the General Medical Council. Had they done so, Shipman's past record of drug abuse and forgery might well have led to a more thorough approach.
But more intense scrutiny was about to blow the Shipman case wide open. Kathleen Grundy's sudden death on June 24th came as a terrible shock to all who knew her.
A singularly active year-old, she was well known to the people of Hyde. A wealthy ex-mayor, she had energy to burn and was a tireless worker for local charities until the day of her death.
Her absence was noted when she failed to show at the Age Concern club. There, she helped serve meals to elderly pensioners.
Because the wealthy widow was noted for her punctuality and reliability, her friends suspected something was wrong. When they went to her home to check up on her, they found her lying on a sofa.
She was fully dressed, and dead. He had visited the house a few hours earlier, and was the last person to see her alive.
He claimed the purpose of his visit had been to take blood samples for studies on aging. Shipman pronounced her dead and the news was conveyed to her daughter, Angela Woodruff.
The doctor told the daughter a post mortem was unnecessary because he had seen her shortly before her death.
Following her mother's burial Ms. Woodruff returned to her home, where she received a troubling phone call from solicitors.
They claimed to have a copy of Ms. Grundy's will. A solicitor herself, Angela's own firm had always handled her mother's affairs - her firm held the original document lodged in The moment she saw the badly typed, poorly worded paper, Angela Woodruff knew it was a fake.
It left , pounds to Dr. The signature looked strange, it looked too big. The concept of Mum signing a document leaving everything to her doctor was unbelievable.
Initially, she wondered if Shipman was being framed. But after interviewing witnesses to the "will," she reluctantly concluded the doctor had murdered her mother for profit.
It was then she went to her local police. Her investigation results ultimately reached Detective Superintendent Bernard Postles.
His own investigation convinced him Angela Woodruff's conclusions were accurate. Of the forged will itself, Postles was to later say, "You only have to look at it once and you start thinking it's like something off a John Bull printing press.
You don't have to have twenty years as a detective to know it's a fake. Maybe he thought he was being clever — an old lady, nobody around her: Look at it; it's a bit tacky.
But everyone knew she was as sharp as a tack. Maybe it was his arrogance Now Det. Supt Postles had the oldest motive in the world — greed — to justify his future actions.
To get solid proof of Kathleen Grundy's murder, a post mortem was required which, in turn, required an exhumation order from the coroner.
This is a rare occurrence for any British police force, one the Greater Manchester Police had not experienced. We asked the National Crime Squad for advice.
Postles explained. By the time the trial had begun, his team would be uncomfortably familiar with the process. Of the fifteen killed, nine were buried and six cremated.
Katherine Grundy's was the first grave opened. Her body was the first of the ongoing post mortems. Her tissue and hair samples were sent to different labs for analysis, and the wait for results began.
At the same time, police raided the doctor's home and offices. It was a low-key exercise, but timed so Shipman had no chance of learning a body had been exhumed for a post mortem — Police had to be certain no evidence could be destroyed or concealed before their search.
When the police arrived, Shipman registered no surprise. Rather, his approach was one of arrogance and contempt as the search warrant was read out.
One item crucial to police investigations was the typewriter used to type the bogus will. Shipman produced an old Brother manual portable, telling an improbable tale of how Ms.
Grundy sometimes borrowed it. This unbelievable story was to work against Shipman — especially when forensic scientists confirmed it was the machine used to type the counterfeit will and other fraudulent documents.
Searching his house yielded medical records, some mysterious jewelry and a surprise. The Shipman home was littered with filthy clothes, old newspapers and, for a doctor's home, it was nothing short of unsanitary.
When toxicologist Julie Evans filed her report on the cause of Ms. Grundy's death, Det. Postles was astounded. The morphine level in the dead woman's body was the cause of death.
Not only that, her death would have occurred within three hours of having received the fatal overdose. Postles later said Shipman's use of the drug was a serious miscalculation.
A doctor would surely have known morphine is one of the few poisons that can remain in body tissue for centuries.
Postles observed, "I was surprised I anticipated that I would have had difficulty if he gave them something in way of poison lost in background substance.
Shipman would claim later that the stylish and conservative old lady was a junkie. Even today psychologists speculate on the possibility that he wanted to be caught.
Otherwise, why would he hand them the typewriter and use a drug so easily traced back to him? Others believe he saw himself as invincible, believing that, as a doctor, his word would never be questioned.
The detective realized the case went far beyond one death, and the scope of the investigation was broadened immediately. Just which deaths to investigate became the priority.
To decide, a scale was devised, based on patterns. Those who had not been cremated and had died following a Shipman "house call" took precedence. Other issues were factored in, but obviously only uncremated bodies could yield tissue samples for examination.
Slightly different criteria were applied to the next group for police investigation. All cremated, they were investigated, mainly, on the basis of known pre-existing conditions, recorded causes of death, and Shipman's presence before they died.
Whenever he could, the doctor had urged families to cremate their dead and had also stressed no further investigation was necessary. It may seem strange now that no relatives found this peculiar, but people typically trust their doctors, especially in times of great stress.
After all, the causes of deaths Shipman presented were rational, even though bereaved families were often surprised to learn of conditions their loved ones had never mentioned.
Even if they had questioned the doctor, he had the computerized medical notes to prove patients had seen him for the very symptoms he cited as leading to causes of death.
Police would later know he'd altered computer records to make everything match. Callously, Shipman made most of these changes within hours of his patients' deaths.
Often, immediately after killing, he would hurry to his office and adjust his records. In the case of year-old Kathleen Grundy, he reinforced his later statement that she was a morphine junkie by inventing and backdating several entries.
His sheer audacity in suggesting this highly respected woman had been scoring hits from drug dealers was overwhelmingly stupid. The moment he made the statement, his credibility crumbled.
When Shipman first encountered the computer, he was technophobic. But once he reluctantly agreed to embrace the then new technology, he declared himself a computer expert.
This was consistent with his need to assert his superiority. But what the self-proclaimed computer wiz didn't know was that his hard drive recorded — to the second — every phony alteration he made to a patient's records.
A taped interview with the Greater Manchester Police demonstrates this lack of knowledge:. Police Officer: I'll just remind you of the date of this lady's death — 11th May ' After 3 o'clock that afternoon, you have endorsed the computer with the date of 1st October '97 which is 10 months prior, 'chest pains'.
Shipman: I have no recollection of me putting that on the machine. Officer: You attended the house at 3 o'clock.
That's when you murdered this lady. You went back to the surgery and immediately started altering this lady's medical records.
You tell me why you needed to do that. In another recorded interview, Detective Constable Marie Snitynski also demonstrated how Shipman's computer trapped him.
Following her advising the doctor he had killed a patient year-old Winnifred Mellor with morphine overdose, then altered records to show a history of angina and chest pains, the police officer continued her interview:.
Police Officer: The levels were such that this woman actually died from toxicity of morphine, not as you wrongly diagnosed. In plain speaking you murdered her One feature of these statements from the family was they couldn't believe their own mother had chest pains, angina and hadn't been informed.
Officer: They also found it hard to believe Because she didn't have a history of chest complaints and heart disease and angina, did she doctor? Shipman: If it's written on the records then she had the history and therefore Officer: The simple truth is you've fabricated a history to cover what you've done, you'd murdered her and you make up a history of angina and chest pains so you could issue a death certificate and placate this poor woman's family didn't you?
Officer: We've got a statement from a detective sergeant John Ashley who works in the field of computers.
He has made a thorough examination of your computer, doctor, and the medical records contained on it What have you got to say about that, doctor?
It should be apparent from the above exchange that Shipman was unwilling to cooperate with the police in any way.
Throughout the entire ordeal he was to be arrogant and supercilious. This behavior earned him no friends during the ensuing trial, which commenced on a bright, sunny day in the Lancashire town of Preston on October 5th, The first week was spent with the usual courtroom minutiae.
Shipman's Defense Counsel Nicola Davies went first. Primarily a medical lawyer, year-old Ms. Davies mainly dealt with matters outside the criminal courts.
First, that the trial be halted. Davies claimed that Dr. Shipman could not receive a fair trial because of the prior "inaccurate, misleading" coverage of the case.
For the better part of two days, she drew attention to the range of newspaper articles reportage of nearly patients' cases and financial searches, plus the extensive coverage of the exhumations.
The prosecutor Mr. Henriques countered with a statement that the reports had actually been beneficial — they had helped alert other families to possible irregularities in the deaths of their loved ones.
In the Second Application, Ms. Davies wanted the court to hold three separate trials. She claimed the case of Kathleen Grundy should be separate — it alone had any alleged motive, greed.
The second trial, she said, should involve only patients who had been buried, because this was the only group where physical evidence of cause of death — morphine poisoning — applied.
The third trial, she believed, should cover those cremated, as no physical evidence of death existed. Again, the prosecutor countered with an argument that, because the cases were inter-related, trying them all together was required to present a more comprehensive picture.
Davies then presented the prosecution's third application — one that stunned the court. She wanted evidence referred to in 'volume eight' disallowed.
Essentially, volume eight detailed how Shipman had accumulated morphine from 28 patients — many now deceased.
It showed the doctor continued prescribing for some after they had died, and kept the drugs for his own purposes. Similarly, he had prescribed opiates for many still living — patients who had never required strong painkillers, much less morphine.
After considering the defense's three applications, Mr. Justice Forbes carefully explained why he was denying each one. The trial would proceed; it would include the sixteen charges in the indictment, and evidence in volume eight would be allowed.
Proceedings were adjourned until the following Monday, October 11th Then, the jury would be made up.
The trial began in earnest as Counsel for the prosecution Richard Henriques delivered his opening address. One of the top barristers in Britain, he had handled many sensitive and difficult trials, including the sensational Jamie Bulger trial, where two ten-year old boys kidnapped, tortured, then murdered two-year-old Jamie.
Addressing the case at hand, Mr. Henriques stated "None of those buried - nor indeed cremated — were prescribed morphine or diamorphine.
All of them died most unexpectedly. All of them had seen Dr. Shipman on the day of their death. As he briefly outlined the case, Henriques dismissed euthanasia or mercy killing on the basis that none of the dead had had a terminal illness.
He claimed Shipman killed the fifteen patients because he enjoyed doing so: "He was exercising the ultimate power of controlling life and death, and repeated the act so often he must have found the drama of taking life to his taste.
His first witness was Angela Woodruff. An accomplished solicitor, she was as striking as her mother had been in life. It was presided over by Mr Justice Forbes.
His legal defense representatives tried to have Shipman trialed on three different trials. One with clear evidence, one with no aparent reason and the Grundy trial where the forgery set this case apart from the rest.
But the request was denied so the trial continued. The government pathologist, exposed the gruesome details in the post mortem findings about the high level of morphine injected in patients.
Fingerprint evidence was introduced showing that there was no way that Kathleen Grundy handled the forged will; computer analysis proved that Shipman altered the medical records of the patients after their death.
Apparently Shipman was not aware that every change in his database holds a time stamp. Evidence was also introduced proving that Shipman was pretending to call emergencies in the presence of relatives.
But cut off the call when the patients were declared death. On 31 January , after six days of deliberation, the jury found Harold Shipman guilty of 15 counts of murder and one count of forgery.
More than patient files were investigated and it was found that Harold Shipman killed at least victims between the age of 45 and 93, starting with until Deaths before were impossible to prove and no records were kept.
Shipman never admitted to any of the murders and a retrial was excluded from the start. Many victim relatives pleaded to him for help, to find out how their loved ones died.
But he never said anything. For those people, his gruesome murders and his trial never ended. There were many speculations as to why Shipman comitted his crimes.
Some said that he had a God complex, enjoying the decision power he had over the life or death of his victims.
But the truth is that his motives were never discovered. Harold Shipman died by hanging in his prison cell at Wakefield, on January 13, , having used bed sheets tied to the window bars of his cell.
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