Übersetzung im Kontext von „c'est ça“ in Französisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: c'est pour ça, c'est comme ça, c'est pas ça, c'est ça qui, c'est que ça. Ca$. Dass der nicht immer Tagesaktuell ist, sehe ich ja ein aber bei 60$ bzw € uro macht das schon einen ziemlich gewaltigen Unterschied (von ca 18 Euro!). Der teilige Französischkurs "C'est ca, la vie" richtet sich an Fortgeschrittene. Die Lehrsendungen führen Sie mitten in den französischen Alltag.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number As an alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air.
Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium.
The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate , found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium.
The name derives from Latin calx " lime ", which was obtained from heating limestone. Some calcium compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century.
Pure calcium was isolated in via electrolysis of its oxide by Humphry Davy , who named the element. Calcium compounds are widely used in many industries: On the other hand, the metal in pure form has few applications due to its high reactivity; still, in small quantities it is often used as an alloying component in steelmaking, and sometimes, as a calcium—lead alloy, in making automotive batteries.
Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body. As electrolytes , calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes as well as proper bone formation.
Calcium is a very ductile silvery metal sometimes described as pale yellow whose properties are very similar to the heavier elements in its group, strontium , barium , and radium.
A calcium atom has twenty electrons, arranged in the electron configuration [Ar]4s 2. Like the other elements placed in group 2 of the periodic table, calcium has two valence electrons in the outermost s-orbital, which are very easily lost in chemical reactions to form a dipositive ion with the stable electron configuration of a noble gas , in this case argon.
Hence, calcium is almost always divalent in its compounds, which are usually ionic. Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium would be stable with respect to their elements, but not to disproportionation to the divalent salts and calcium metal, because the enthalpy of formation of MX 2 is much higher than those of the hypothetical MX.
Calcium, strontium, barium, and radium are always considered to be alkaline earth metals ; the lighter beryllium and magnesium , also in group 2 of the periodic table, are often included as well.
Nevertheless, beryllium and magnesium are significantly different from the other members of the group in their physical and chemical behaviour: Its density of 1.
While calcium is a poorer conductor of electricity than copper or aluminium by volume, it is a better conductor by mass than both due to its very low density.
The chemistry of calcium is that of a typical heavy alkaline earth metal. For example, calcium spontaneously reacts with water more quickly than magnesium and less quickly than strontium to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
It also reacts with the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. In bulk, calcium is less reactive: Besides the simple oxide CaO, the peroxide CaO 2 can be made by direct oxidation of calcium metal under a high pressure of oxygen, and there is some evidence for a yellow superoxide Ca O 2 2.
In the absence of steric hindrance , smaller group 2 cations tend to form stronger complexes, but when large polydentate macrocycles are involved the trend is reversed.
Although calcium is in the same group as magnesium and organomagnesium compounds are very commonly used throughout chemistry, organocalcium compounds are not similarly widespread because they are more difficult to make and more reactive, although they have recently been investigated as possible catalysts.
Most of these compounds can only be prepared at low temperatures; bulky ligands tend to favor stability. Natural calcium is a mixture of five stable isotopes 40 Ca, 42 Ca, 43 Ca, 44 Ca, and 46 Ca and one isotope with a half-life so long that it can be considered stable for all practical purposes 48 Ca , with a half-life of about 4.
Calcium is the first lightest element to have six naturally occurring isotopes. By far the most common isotope of calcium in nature is 40 Ca, which makes up It is produced in the silicon-burning process from fusion of alpha particles and is the heaviest stable nuclide with equal proton and neutron numbers; its occurrence is also supplemented slowly by the decay of primordial 40 K.
Adding another alpha particle would lead to unstable 44 Ti, which quickly decays via two successive electron captures to stable 44 Ca; this makes up 2.
The four lighter isotopes are mainly products of the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes, leaving the two heavier ones to be produced via neutron-capturing processes.
Although extremely neutron-rich for such a light element, 48 Ca is very stable because it is a doubly magic nucleus , having 20 protons and 28 neutrons arranged in closed shells.
Its beta decay to 48 Sc is very hindered because of the gross mismatch of nuclear spin: While two excited states of 48 Sc are available for decay as well, they are also forbidden due to their high spins.
As a result, when 48 Ca does decay, it does so by double beta decay to 48 Ti instead, being the lightest nuclide known to undergo double beta decay.
Calcium is the only element to have two primordial doubly magic isotopes. The experimental lower limits for the half-lives of 40 Ca and 46 Ca are 5.
Apart from the practically stable 48 Ca, the longest lived radioisotope of calcium is 41 Ca. It decays by electron capture to stable 41 K with a half-life of about a hundred thousand years.
Its existence in the early Solar System as an extinct radionuclide has been inferred from excesses of 41 K: The isotopes lighter than 42 Ca usually undergo beta plus decay to isotopes of potassium, and those heavier than 44 Ca usually undergo beta minus decay to isotopes of scandium , although near the nuclear drip lines proton emission and neutron emission begin to be significant decay modes as well.
Like other elements, a variety of processes alter the relative abundance of calcium isotopes. Lighter isotopes are preferentially incorporated into these minerals, leaving the surrounding solution enriched in heavier isotopes at a magnitude of roughly 0.
Calcium compounds were known for millennia, although their chemical makeup was not understood until the 17th century. The climate of present-day Italy being warmer than that of Egypt, the ancient Romans instead used lime mortars made by heating limestone CaCO 3 ; the name "calcium" itself derives from the Latin word calx "lime".
In , Antoine Lavoisier suspected that lime might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element. In his table of the elements, Lavoisier listed five "salifiable earths" i.
About these "elements", Lavoisier speculated:. We are probably only acquainted as yet with a part of the metallic substances existing in nature, as all those which have a stronger affinity to oxygen than carbon possesses, are incapable, hitherto, of being reduced to a metallic state, and consequently, being only presented to our observation under the form of oxyds, are confounded with earths.
It is extremely probable that barytes, which we have just now arranged with earths, is in this situation; for in many experiments it exhibits properties nearly approaching to those of metallic bodies.
It is even possible that all the substances we call earths may be only metallic oxyds, irreducible by any hitherto known process.
Calcium, along with its congeners magnesium, strontium, and barium, was first isolated by Humphry Davy in Electrolysis then gave calcium—mercury and magnesium—mercury amalgams, and distilling off the mercury gave the metal.
Minerals of the first type include limestone , dolomite , marble , chalk , and iceland spar ; aragonite beds make up the Bahamas , the Florida Keys , and the Red Sea basins.
Corals , sea shells , and pearls are mostly made up of calcium carbonate. The major producers of calcium are China about to tonnes per year , Russia about to tonnes per year , and the United States about to tonnes per year.
Canada and France are also among the minor producers. Calcium provides a link between tectonics , climate , and the carbon cycle. These ions are transported to the ocean where they react with dissolved CO 2 to form limestone CaCO 3 , which in turn settles to the sea floor where it is incorporated into new rocks.
Dissolved CO 2 , along with carbonate and bicarbonate ions, are termed " dissolved inorganic carbon " DIC. The weathering of calcium from rocks thus scrubs CO 2 from the ocean and atmosphere, exerting a strong long-term effect on climate.
The largest use of calcium is in steelmaking , due to its strong chemical affinity for oxygen and sulfur. Its oxides and sulfides, once formed, give liquid lime aluminate and sulfide inclusions in steel which float out; on treatment, these inclusions disperse throughout the steel and became small and spherical, improving castability, cleanliness and general mechanical properties.
Calcium is also used in maintenance-free automotive batteries , in which the use of 0. Due to the risk of expansion and cracking, aluminium is sometimes also incorporated into these alloys.
These lead—calcium alloys are also used in casting, replacing lead—antimony alloys. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of chromium , zirconium , thorium , and uranium.
It can also be used to store hydrogen gas, as it reacts with hydrogen to form solid calcium hydride , from which the hydrogen can easily be re-extracted.
Calcium isotope fractionation during mineral formation has led to several applications of calcium isotopes. In particular, the observation by Skulan and DePaolo  that calcium minerals are isotopically lighter than the solutions from which the minerals precipitate is the basis of analogous applications in medicine and in paleooceanography.
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When plasma calcium levels fall, cell surface receptors are activated and the secretion of parathyroid hormone occurs; it then proceeds to stimulate the entry of calcium into the plasma pool by taking it from targeted kidney, gut, and bone cells, with the bone-forming action of parathyroid hormone being antagonised by calcitonin , whose secretion increases with increasing plasma calcium levels.
Excess intake of calcium may cause hypercalcaemia. However, because calcium is absorbed rather inefficiently by the intestines, high serum calcium is more likely caused by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone PTH or possibly by excessive intake of vitamin D, both which facilitate calcium absorption.
It may also be due to bone destruction that occurs when tumours metastasize within bone. All these conditions result in excess calcium salts being deposited in the heart, blood vessels, or kidneys.
Symptoms include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, confusion, muscle weakness, increased urination, dehydration, and metabolic bone disease.
Chronic hypercalcaemia typically leads to calcification of soft tissue and its serious consequences: Conversely, inadequate calcium or vitamin D intakes may result in hypocalcaemia , often caused also by inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone or defective PTH receptors in cells.
Symptoms include neuromuscular excitability, which potentially causes tetany and disruption of conductivity in cardiac tissue.
As calcium is heavily involved in bone manufacture, many bone diseases can be traced to problems with the organic matrix or the hydroxyapatite in molecular structure or organisation.
For example, osteoporosis is a reduction in mineral content of bone per unit volume, and can be treated by supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and biphosphates.
Calcium supplements may benefit the serum lipids in women who have passed menopause as well as older men; in post-menopausal women calcium supplementation also appears to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease.
Inadequate amounts of calcium, vitamin D, or phosphates can lead to the softening of bones, known as osteomalacia. Because calcium reacts exothermically with water and acids, calcium metal coming into contact with bodily moisture results in severe corrosive irritation.
Because of concerns for long-term adverse side effects, including calcification of arteries and kidney stones, both the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the metallic element. For other uses, see Calcium disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Chemistry of the Elements 2nd ed.
Pure and Applied Chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.
Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds. Hammond The elements p. Synthesis, Structures, and Hydroamination Catalysis". How Important is the Metal?
Handbook of Isotopes in the Cosmos: Archived from the original PDF on United States Geological Survey. Lime Kilns and Lime Burning.
Chemistry and Technology, Production and Uses. Discovery of the Elements. Journal of Chemical Education.
Lavoisier with Robert Kerr, trans. The original passage appears in: Cuchet, , vol. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
National Council for Science and the Environment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Information System Micromedex, Inc.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Periodic table Large cells. Pharmacy and pharmacology portal Medicine portal. Retrieved from " https: Calcium Chemical elements Alkaline earth metals Dietary minerals Dietary supplements Reducing agents Sodium channel blockers World Health Organization essential medicines.
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